SAPIENS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMANKIND - Coolcatinvite

SAPIENS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMANKIND

Nonfiction books sapien

So I got my hands on Sapiens a brief history of humankind late last year though to be frank with you I quite hesitated on reading it because I have had my own fair share of evolution books of mankind and organism so I felt this might be another long story of what I already know and have consumed but just like Talib will say the real wealth are in books we haven’t read yet so I took the strength in convincing myself that this might be something great after weeks yes weeks this s my summarization of Sapiens and review I think it was worth the read follow me

Summary

This first chapter talked about how we came to be and how our ancestors the Sapiens originated from East Africa and migrated to the other part of the world the writer made it clear just as the lion leopard tiger share the same gene and of one family we humans also share the same gene with some other breeds of human that Sapiens were not the only humans that walked on earth 70,000 years ago the nearndathals occupied Europe and erectus occupied Asia though nearndathals much stronger than sapiens with bigger brains was somehow driven out of the Earth by Sapiens after they migrated to Europe the individual nearndathals had more advantage to the Sapiens

Due to the Sapiens ability to have its own broad language and how to communicate to many they stood a chance collectively and due to their ability through evolution to create myth man had the advantage to live together and corporate together due to a collection of imaginary belief the writer then stated that their revolution influenced man starting from the days of the Sapiens in East Africa the cognitive revolution the agricultural revolution the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution

He went further to discuss the ancestry of sapiens and how they lived in between the cognitive revolution and agricultural revolution during this times thousands of tribes were created by different bands and with every tribes came its own sect belief and ways of life in Australia alone there are thousands of tribe within a mile radius and though they might be close they don’t have the same practice or daily routines furthermore the writer dives into comparison of premodern foragers and the foragers of pre agricultural revolution and how the climate economy way of living war differs from the premodern foragers though most way of life are unclear there could still be fossil found giving clue to this

During the cognitive revolution when sapiens started migrating from the Afro-Asia ground into new territories like Australia and America Yuval discussed how the influence of the Sapiens led to the extinction of most giant terrestrial animals and even though most of the blames could be put on climate change it is evident the Sapiens are involved in the extinction of majority of those animals 

with the introduction of agricultural revolution humans gradually left the hunting era the agricultural era first started in turkey but this does not mean that other continent learnt agriculture from the middle East agriculture will make human stay permanently in a particular geographical area so they can tend to crops like wheat which take tedious time to take care of

Yuval will go on to make a point humans didn’t really domesticate wheat wheat domesticated us because it took us out of our original way of living the hunter gatherers had variety of meal to choose from and moves around when a particular area is scarce but unlike the hunting or cognitive revolution the agricultural revolution brought hunger and health issue into the village though food production increased birth rate also increased the other things human domesticated was animals the animals they could control they domesticated and kept for procreation while the ones they could not they killed for eating

The agricultural revolution led to settlement of peasants which turned into village tribe community town city state to country this will end up making population increase and for population to live together for the Egyptian to build the pyramids in 8000bc there has to be an imagined order just as the code of Hammurabi in Babylon and the American independence code though the imagined order might be biologically incorrect and can be flawed but it has to be believed for society to prosper and corporate but for society to corporate there has to be forces set up for violence and this forces controls society the military the police force the jailers the laws

The writer went on to tell us for the controlling forces to believe in the imagined order a grand motive has to be attached to it either God, for country, for manhood, for heritage the church won’t last 2000 years if the bishop and the priest didn’t believe in God this imagined order ends up making up our life and every individual was born into a myth and this myth is inter-subjective and for an imagined order to seize to exist something greater most replace it so the world can’t live or exist without an imagined order

With the increase in agriculture and the increase in use of land man has to find a way of keeping memories around him the foragers though able to have a good memory stand on their environment and surrounding on which plant to take for illness and which to avoid went on depending on the brain for centuries but with the rise of empires and bureaucracy human had to find a new way to put down memories and financial transaction the Sumerians were the first to come up with the idea of writing in partial script to record transaction and tax the partial script will later on evolve to full script and be taken on by other empire like the Pharoanic Egypt and Greek but with the largeness of bureaucracy a new way must be found to keep up with the data and document keeping this would make the Sumerians go further In learning how to keep catalogues and the Arabs will develop numbers which till today affects how we humans think 

The agricultural revolution led to creation of nation but for this nations to work and it’s people needed to live in harmony imagined order and devised script was created though this orders forged in corporation and equality necessarily didn’t lead to any of this in truth it led to oppression and inequality because the imagined order led to division of people into social class and gender roles from the Hindu crate to the American slave trade market and even years after which this division was created they still go on to have an impact in the life of modern society

After the agricultural revolution human society grew so large and complex and the imagined order more elaborate with this came myth and fiction which made up culture with the growth of human culture humans continued to experience huge change though people saw only their own world only and thought it was all that existed other worlds were separate entity but with the exploration of the Afro-Asia many worlds were brought and cultures were inter-change 

With the inter-change of culture and the European exploration of the America came commerce goods needed to be made and exchanged for other needs unlike the hunter gatherers who had everything and limited needs within the small tribe the expansion of society led to the specialization of goods and services and for a proper exchange of that goods to take place money had to be created as a form of trust money will continue to serve that purpose from shekels to silver to gold to coins to paper to digit on the computer

Empires created culture and empires were made by the conquering of other regional kingdoms through war oppression and murder the culture of the oppressors was pressed on the oppressed the oppressed go on further to want to get accepted into the way of life of their conquerors this has been how history played out till the western exploration

The last social order to keep humanity together was religion it started first with the hunter gatherers who were animist they felt everything around them mattered and was watched over by some spirit or ghost or some animal

Agricultural revolution came the times of trade and commerce with other kingdom and with this came the polytheistic belief where people believed in multiple gods and with the rise of empires emperors conquered and forced their religion on the oppressed but still allowed them to worship their own gods this went on until the rise of monotheistic belief which gave rise to Christianity and Islam the monotheistic belief of Christianity will go on to adapt most of the belief of dualism and a new belief will found a new belief will find its way into human society which is called the law of nature which are Buddhism stoicism cynicism and more the writer further went to classify liberalism socialism communism Nazism as religion that worship man 

With the scientific revolution came the ignorance revolution the era where men start realizing they know nothing and go in search of finding answer for themselves and even when those answers were met no observation was objectively and totally correct this era brought a huge change into how Sapiens started seeing the world and most of the scientific research was been carried out for the cause of government religion and industry many scientific research was not done independently off the scientist the government funded this research and expedition for the sake of war and weaponry over centuries since the 15th century mankind has gone to develop more and more things that made the world better

Back in the days before modern science empires wasn’t driven by scientific research all they just wanted to do is occupy and defend neighboring town and claim their riches but with the coming of science in the 15 century the European explorers didn’t just travel to go occupy lands they went to understand everything about the land they tended to occupy

The British was the first with this innovation with the Aboriginals with the conquering of the Tasmania and Australia this innovation spread to other European countries and led to discovery of the America by Columbus though he thought he was heading for Asia and mistook the island for India it was Vincent Amerigo who would change this knowledge after his bold move and then a new map would be found around Europe with empty space that will led to so many colonization and the rise of the European empire that will go on to conquer the far East, Asia and Africa which further adds more proof that politics and science feeds the hands of each other

The chapter capitalism creed talked on how capitalism was influenced by credit and credit by trust a trust in the future with the invention of credit led to the power of capitalism it gave hope to the peasants who dreams of building a bakery it brought in investors ready to buy a ship and send sailors to foreign lands to go exploit and find new opportunities but with all of its hope and positivity capitalism brought its own vices companies such as VOC led great ruin to Indonesia and the British crown company to India Capitalism brought the age of private sector owning an empire employing mercenaries to do the fighting and killing work for them though there has always been a relationship between capitalism and politics but with the shout of free-market by the capitalist we have seen what the ruin of free-market can do greed that are left unchecked could go on to create such havoc just like the slave trade of the sixteen century to eighteen century 

Before the industrial revolution Sapiens has always wondered how to convert one energy form to another and the only one they could think of and put into realization was the conversion of plant energy into physical energy for Sapiens and animals to do handy works and carryout most work by hands the first of energy conversation that led to movement was the steam which would go on to start the industrial revolution this will be the starting of the industrial era and the exploitation of different energy and mass production which will result to the consumerism ideal

With the rise of the consumerism ideal with the rise of the industrial revolution came the decline of family and community in the premodern time family and communities ruled and handled their business by themselves without the intervention of the empire families solved their own issues and help each other in building works and project

But with the rise of consumerism came the decline of all that and led to the rise of individualism and with the rise of individualism a new imagined community needed to be made to make the people feel like they belonged to something or together this imagined community was the state and market

Imagined community brought about rapid change in the social order and with every change of the social order came it’s own rules and way of life the state and market led to the protection of its citizen and made people feel they believed in the same thing and fighting for the same course state and market brought the corporation of a huge amount of people and saw the decline in wars and dying by violence it made war have less value and peace more value because unlike the premodern time the profits of war are no longer gold and natural resources but the minds of the individual of the states 

The last two chapters of this book tackled the future of the Sapiens with huge introspective questions concerning happiness and how can we get it are we more happier than the people in medieval era are the advances in technology bringing much satisfaction into our life though the writer made a point on Buddhism and how the practices of it and it’s meditation could lead to the life of happiness because it’s stops our craving the last chapter talked about further scientific development that could surpass natural selection and how humans has developed to the level of influencing animals through the genes of higher animals like the cattle ear on the rat and the monogamous life of the promiscuous voles with the development of bioengineering and cyborgs there are future hope of a greater sapiens but all this still look uncertain they are just based on prediction

Review of Sapiens

Okay that was some long summary whew but you don’t have to blame me I like making people see things from my perspective or through my eyes but Sapiens was a great read beyond reasonable doubt and even though I don’t agree with some insight and history here I appreciate his research in putting all this together and I really love the use of words here and the little bit of humor here and there but what I feel is a book should know when to end and I don’t think Yuval really knew when and how to end Sapiens I mean you have written such a great piece and wonderful information why bore us with your subjective prediction of the future like I really don’t want to know even if it will sound awesome and look amazing to know what the future will hold and its development

I don’t think any human has that power to predict any piece of it not even the scientist and with the height of consumerism ideal I don’t think this is in the hands of the creator anymore the consumers predict the future this time so you might say this is what will happen but that might not be a collective want and in terms of religion I think Yuval was trying to so hard to push Buddhism down the throat of his reader I too am a fan of whatever he was saying but I feel like going too much about it might give another reader a sense of partiality in his writing and not being free of prejudice but hey again Sapiens was a great read and I enjoyed every word of it till next time remember to subscribe and share much love and light


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